Cascading Style Sheets

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What is CSS?

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. It is a style sheet language which is used to describe the look and formatting of a document written in markup language. It provides an additional feature to HTML. It is generally used with HTML to change the style of web pages and user interfaces. It can also be used with any kind of XML documents including plain XML, SVG and XUL.
CSS is used along with HTML and JavaScript in most websites to create user interfaces for web applications and user interfaces for many mobile applications.
Responsive Image

Html vs CSS

Quite simply, HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is used to create the actual content of the page, such as written text, and CSS (Cascade Styling Sheets) is responsible for the design or style of the website, including the layout, visual effects and background color.

History of CSS

CSS was first proposed by Håkon Wium Lie on October 10, 1994. At the time, Lie was working with Tim Berners-Lee (father of Html) at CERN. The European Organization for Nuclear Research is known as CERN. Hakon wium lie is know as father of css.
CSS was proposed in 1994 as a web styling language, to solve some of the problems of Html 4. There were other styling languages proposed at this time, such as Style Sheets for Html and JSSS but CSS won..

How many CSS Versions?

CSS has various levels and profiles. Each level of CSS builds upon the last, typically adding new features and typically denoted as CSS 1, CSS 2, CSS 3, and CSS 4. Profiles are typically a subset of one or more levels of CSS built for a particular device or user interface. Currently there are profiles for mobile devices, printers, and television sets. Profiles should not be confused with media types, which were added in CSS 2.


The first CSS specification to become an official W3C Recommendation is CSS level 1, published on December 17, 1996. Håkon Wium Lie and Bert Bos are credited as the original developers.Among its capabilities are support for

  • Font properties such as typeface and emphasis
  • Color of text, backgrounds, and other elements
  • Text attributes such as spacing between words, letters, and lines of text
  • Alignment of text, images, tables and other elements
  • Margin, border, padding, and positioning for most elements
  • Unique identification and generic classification of groups of attributes
The W3C no longer maintains the CSS 1 Recommendation.


CSS level 2 specification was developed by the W3C and published as a recommendation in May 1998. A superset of CSS 1, CSS 2 includes a number of new capabilities like absolute, relative, and fixed positioning of elements and z-index, the concept of media types, support for aural style sheets (which were later replaced by the CSS 3 speech modules) and bidirectional text, and new font properties such as shadows.

The W3C no longer maintains the CSS 2 recommendation.

CSS 2.1

CSS level 2 revision 1, often referred to as "CSS 2.1", fixes errors in CSS 2, removes poorly supported or not fully interoperable features and adds already implemented brow py-2ser extensions to the specification. To comply with the W3C Process for standardizing technical specifications, CSS 2.1 went back and forth between Working Draft status and Candidate Recommendation status for many years. CSS 2.1 first became a Candidate Recommendation on February 25, 2004, but it was reverted to a Working Draft on June 13, 2005 for further review. It returned to Candidate Recommendation on 19 July 2007 and then updated twice in 2009. However, because changes and clarifications were made, it again went back to Last Call Working Draft on 7 December 2010.

CSS 2.1 went to Proposed Recommendation on 12 April 2011. After being reviewed by the W3C Advisory Committee, it was finally published as a W3C Recommendation on 7 June 2011.

CSS 2.1 was planned as the first and final revision of level 2—but low priority work on CSS 2.2 began in 2015.


Unlike CSS 2, which is a large single specification defining various features, CSS 3 is divided into several separate documents called "modules". Each module adds new capabilities or extends features defined in CSS 2, preserving backward compatibility. Work on CSS level 3 started around the time of publication of the original CSS 2 recommendation. The earliest CSS 3 drafts were published in June 1999.

Due to the modularization, different modules have different stability and statuses.

Some modules have Candidate Recommendation (CR) status and are considered moderately stable. At CR stage, implementations are advised to drop vendor prefixes.


There is no single, integrated CSS4 specification, because it is split into separate "level 4" modules.

Because CSS3 split the CSS language's definition into modules, the modules have been allowed to level independently. Most modules are level 3—they build on things from CSS 2.1. A few level-4 modules exist (such as Image Values, Backgrounds & Borders, or Selectors), which build on the functionality of a preceding level-3 module. Other modules defining entirely new functionality, such as Flexbox, have been designated as "level 1".

The CSS Working Group sometimes publishes "Snapshots", a collection of whole modules and parts of other drafts that are considered stable, interoperably implemented and hence ready to use. So far, five such "best current practices" documents have been published as Notes, in 2007, 2010,2015, 2017, and 2018.

Future Of CSS 5

Many of the killer features of preprocessors have already made it into CSS (variables), or can be handled better by more advanced build processes (imports). The tools that we'll ultimately use to modularize and scope our CSS are still, in a sense, CSS preprocessors, so they may take over the job of whatever is left of preprocessing necessity. Of the standard set of current preprocessors, I would think the main one we will miss is mixins. If native CSS stepped up to implement mixins (maybe @apply) and extends (maybe @extend), that would quicken the deprecation of today's crop of preprocessors.

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